Key to the Filamentous higher manglicolous fungi

Key to subdivisions of Higher fungi

  1. Reproduction by sexual spores contained in fruit bodies, some fungi also have asexual means (conidia on hyphae or in fruit bodies)...2

1. Reproduction by asexual spores only (conidia), produced directly on hyphae or in fruit bodies...Fungi Imperfecti (Deuteromycotina)

2 (1) Spores (called ascospores) are developed inside transparent sacs called asci (sing. ascus) which in all cases are turgid structures, arranged in a continuous layer called the hymenium. At maturity, the ascus, usually containing 8 ascospores, bursts or dissolves to liberate its ascospores...Ascomycotina

2 (1) Spores (called basidiospores) are usually produced in fours on the outside of special cells called basidia, (sing. basidium) which are closely packed in a continuous layer called the hymenium..Basidiomycotina

ASCOMYCOTINA

  1. Ascomata opening with a cleft-like ostiole (hysterothecial), or discoid and hymenium completely exposed at maturity (apothecial)..2

1. Ascomata without opening (cleistothecial), or with round ostiole (perithecial)..10

2 (1) Ascomata superficial, discoid (apothecial); hymenium exposed..3

2 (1) Ascomata embedded or superficial, not discoid, ostiole cleft-like... 5

3 (2) Ascospores uniseptate....4

3 (2) Ascospores multiseptate..Lecanidion atratum

4 (3) Ascospores with longitudinal striations, ellipsoidal, septum inequilateral,.Dactylospora haliotrepha

4 (3) Ascospores verruculose, cylindrical or allantoid, septum median.Dactylospora mangrovei

  1. (2) Ascomata lirelliform (a long, narrow apothecium)..Melaspilea mangrovei

5 (2) Ascomata not lirelliform......6

6 (5) Ascomata superficial, navicular or hysterothecial, ascospores with transverse septa only.....7

6 (5) Ascomata immersed; ascospores muriform .....8

7 (6) Ascomata navicular; ascospores hyaline with a mucilaginous sheath...Lophiostoma mangrovei

7 (6) Ascomata hysterothecial, ascospores brown, lacking a mucilaginous sheath...Hysterium sp.

8 (6) Ascospores with 13 or more transverse septa, up to 96 m long.....Aigialus grandis

8 (6) Ascospores with less than 13 transverse septa, less than 75 m.....9

9 (8) Ascospores 16-27 m diam., more than 8 transverse septa....Aigialus parvus

9 (8) Ascospores 10-16 m diam., less than 8 transverse septa...Aigialus mangrovei

10 (1) Ascospores filiform....11

10 (1) Ascospores not filiform.....17

11 (10) Ascospores curved with a characteristic hook-shape at one end, multiseptate, yellow-yellowish brown, with longitudinal striations..Pedumispora rhizophorae

11 (10) Ascospores with end chambers releasing mucilage or with a mucilaginous cap, non-septate or 1-septate, hyaline, smooth.....12

12 (11) Asci with an apical ring that stains blue in Melzer's reagent, ascospores 1-septate..Oxydothis nypae

12 (11) Asci with or without an apical ring, not staining blue in Melzer's reagent, ascospores non-septate...13

13 (12) Asci without an apical ring; ascospores tapering at both ends into mucilage-containing, cell-like processes.....14

13 (12) Asci with an apical ring, ascospores non-septate, with a mucilaginous cap at one or both ends.....15

14 (13) Ascospores longer than 500 m....Lulworthia grandispora

14 (13) Ascospores longer than 110 m but shorter than 500 m...Lulworthia sp.

15 (13) Ascospores fasciculate, needle-shaped, tapering to a narrow point at the base.....Linocarpon angustatum

15 (13) Ascospores straight or slightly curved or mostly sigmoid.....16

16 (15) Ascospore appendages (mucilage) at both ends of the ascospore, pad-like..Linocarpon bipolaris

16 (15) Ascospore appendages (mucilage) at one end of the ascospore, bell-shaped.....Linocarpon appendiculatum

17 (10) Ascospores non-septate at maturity.....18

17 (10) Ascospores with one septum or more at maturity.....25

18 (10) Ascospores allantoid...19

18 (10) Ascospores subglobose or ellipsoidal....21

19 (18) Numerous ascospores per ascus (polysporous)....Cryptovalsa sp.

19 (18) Eight ascospores per ascus....20

20 (19) Ascospores less than 10 m in length, brown; ascomata on wood of AvicenniaEutypa bathurstensis

20 (19) Ascospores more than 10 m in length, pale yellow; ascomata on bark of RhizophoraCryptosphaeria mangrovei

21 (18) Ascospores hyaline..24

21 (18) Ascospores yellow to dark-brown.....22

22 (21) Ascospores dark-brown, with longitudinal germ slits....23

22 (21) Ascospores yellowish to yellowish-brown without a germ slit..Rhizophila marina

23 (22) Ascomata in a stroma, superficial.....Halorosellinia oceanicum

23 (22) Ascomata not in a stroma, immersed.....Anthostomella nypensis

24 (21) Ascospores hyaline, subglobose, without a mucilaginous sheath.....Payosphaeria minuta

24 (21) Ascospores hyaline, ellipsoidal, with a mucilaginous sheath....Frondicola tunitricuspis

 

25 (17) Ascospores with one septum at maturity.....26

25 (17) Ascospores with more than one septum at maturity....44

26 (25) Ascospores with a dark upper cell and a light-coloured lower cell....27

26 (25) Ascospores concolorous....28

27 (26) Light-coloured lower cell of ascospores is as long as the dark-coloured upper cell.....Zopfiella sp.

27 (26) Light-coloured lower cell of the ascospores is shorter than the dark-coloured upper cell....Zopfiella latipes

28 (26) Ascospores hyaline, light-grayish, yellow or yellowish-brown at maturity...29

28 (26) Ascospores dark-coloured (brown or blackish) at maturity..41

29 (28) Ascospores without appendages....30

29 (28) Ascospores with appendages...36

30 (29) Ascospores apricot-coloured in masses...Swampomyces armeniacus

30 (29) Ascospores hyaline or other light colours in masses...31

31 (30) Ascospores thick-walled...32

31 (30) Ascospores thin-walled...33

32 (31) Ascospores longer than 22 m...Aniptodera chesapeakensis

32 (31) Ascospores shorter than 22 m....Aniptodera haispora

33 (31) Ascospores distinctly ridged longitudinally, ascomata orange...Kallichroma tethys

33 (31) Ascospores without longitudinal ridges, ascomata not orange...34

34 (33) Ascospore diameter over 20 m...Nais glitra

34 (33) Ascospore diameter below 20 m....35

35 (34) Ascospore diameter over 9 m, ascomata over 300 m high....Lignincola tropica

35 (34) Ascospore diameter below 9 m, ascomata below 300 m....Lignincola longirostris

36 (29) Ascospores with 1 deciduous apical cap-like appendage...Tirispora sp.

36 (29) Ascospores with 2 appendages, apical or subapical mostly unfurling into long threads....37

37 (36) Appendages subglobose or lenticular, apical....38

37 (36) Appendages hamate, lateral....39

38 (37) Ascospore diameter 18 m or more....Halosarpheia fibrosa

38 (37) Ascospore diameter below 18 m....Halosarpheia minuta

39 (37) Ascospores longer than 47 m....Halosarpheia ratnagiriensis

39 (37) Ascospores 47 m or shorter....40

40 (39) Ascospore diameter 14-22 m....Halosarpheia abonnis

40 (39) Ascospore diameter 12-14 m....Aniptodera mangrovei

41 (28) Ascospores surrounded by a uniform gelatinous sheath, septum asymmetrical....Helicascus nypae

41 (28) Ascospores not surrounded by a gelatinous sheath, septum symmetrical...42

42 (41) Ascospores verrucose to verruculose...Verruculina enalia

42 (41) Ascospores smooth or striate, not verrucose....43

43 (42) Ascospores distinctly striate; on Rhizophora Lineolata rhizophorae

43 (42) Ascospores not striate..Kirschsteiniothelia maritima

44 (25) Ascospores with transverse septa only....45

44 (25) Ascospores muriform....61

45 (44) Ascospores hyaline at maturity....46

45 (44) Ascospores coloured at maturity....55

46 (45) Ascospores without gelatinous sheaths....47

46 (45) Ascospores with gelatinous sheaths...48

47 (46) Asci fissitunicate, thick-walled, without any apical ring...Leptosphaeria australiensis

47 (46) Asci unitunicate, thin-walled, with a subapical plate....Marinosphaera mangrovei

48 (46) Ascospores 6-8-septate, with mucilaginous sheaths that have a drawn out spine and polar extrusions....Carinispora nypae

48 (46) Ascospores less than 6-septate, mucilaginous sheaths different...49

49 (48) Ascospores 5-septate...50

49 (48) Ascospores less than 5 septate...51

50 (49) Ascospores euseptate, above 50 m, ascomata not under a clypeus....Quintaria lignatilis

50 (49) Ascospores distoseptate, below 28 m, ascomata under a clypeus....Saccardoella rhizophorae

51 (49) Ascospores distoseptate, apparently bitunicate....Saccardoella marinospora

51 (49) Ascospores euseptate, typical bitunicate...52

52 (51) Ascomata conical, superficial, over 1 mm diam...Ascocratera manglicola

52 (51) Ascomata immersed, smaller.....53

53 (52) Ascospores with a mucilaginous sheath having drawn out ends.....Massarina ramunculicola

53 (52) Ascopores with mucilaginous sheaths completely surrounding the spores.....54

54 (53) Ascospores over 45 m length.....Massarina velatospora

54 (53) Ascospores below 45 m length....Massarina sp.

55 (45) Ascospores with end cells hyaline or light coloured....56

55 (45) Ascospores concolorous throughout....59

56 (55) Asci typically 2-spored, bitunicate,...Savoryella paucispora

56 (55) Asci 8-spored, unitunicate with a discoid apical thickening....57

57 (56) Ascospore septa appearing as a distinct band and highly guttulate, sometimes with a mucilaginous sheath...Savoryella sp.

57 (56) Ascospore septa not appearing as a distinct band, eguttulate, without a mucilaginous sheath...58

58 (57) Ascospores mostly longer than 36 m, with a length breadth ratio 4.1:1.0....Savoryella longispora

58 (57) Ascospores mostly shorter than 36 m, with a length breadth ratio 2.9:1.0....Savoryella lignicola

59 (55) Ascospores with apical cellular appendages....Herpotrichia nypicola

59 (55) Ascospores without apical cellular appendages.....60

60 (59) Ascospores longer than 16 m, 1-3- septate....Phaeosphaeria orae-maris

60 (59) Ascospores shorter than 16 m, consistently 3-septate...Leptosphaeria peruviana

61 (44) Ascospores with a simple sheath, less than 40 m...Julella avicenniae

61 (44) Ascospores without a sheath, longer than 100 m... Lautospora gigantea

BASIDIOMYCOTINA

 

1 Basidioma subglobose, puffball-like, irregularly dehiscing at maturity; basidiospores with 5 filamentous appendages....Nia vibrissa

1 Basidioma cyphelloid, releasing the non-appendaged basidiospores apically as a ball through a wide aperture.....2

2 (1) Basidioma large, gregarious; basidia more than 60 m long....Calathella mangrovei

2 (1) Basidioma small, solitary; basidia less than 22 m long...Halocyphina villosa


DEUTEROMYCOTINA

1 Conidia borne on or in fruit bodies (e.g. pycnidial, acervuli and sporodochia (Ceolomycetes).....2

1 Conidia not produced on or in fruit bodies, but on hyphae (Hyphomycetes)....5

2 (1) Conidia non-septate.....3

2 (1) Conidia multi-septate...Stagonospora sp.

3 (2) Conidia produced endogenously in phialides....Phialophorophoma litoralis

3 (2) Conidia produced exogenously on conidiophores....4

4 (3) Conidia globose.....Phoma sp.

4 (3) Conidia filiform.... Phomopsis sp.

5 (1) Conidiogenous cells thallic....Trimmatostroma sp.

5 (1) Conidiogenous cells blastic...6

6 (5) Conidia 1-celled, often forming long chains that break-up

eventually....Periconia prolifica

6 (5) Conidia 1 to several-septate...7

7 (6) Conidia 1-septate...Trichocladium alopallonellum

7 (6) Conidia multiseptate....8

8 (7) Conidia with transverse septa only...10

8 (7) Conidia muriform.....9

9 (8) Conidia with irregular conglomerate of cells..Monodictys pelagica

9 (8) Conidia seceding from denticles by schizolysis, irregularly helicoid..Helicorhoidion nypicola

10 (8) Conidia more or less straight....11

10 (8) Conidia distinctly coiled or curved (helicoid)...12

11 (10) Conidia pyriform, 1-2-septate, 15-20 x 10-15 m, occurring on Nypa...Trichocladium nypae

11 (10) Conidia obovoid to pyriform, 1-4-septate, 17-25 x 10-16, occurring on other mangrove hosts....Trichocladium achrasporum

12 (10) Apical cell considerably broader than the basal cell (Cirrenalia)...13

12 (10) Apical cell not conspicuously broader than the basal cell....Zalerion varium

13 (12) Mature conidia black, shiny, fist-shaped, not constricted at the obscured septa.... Cirrenalia pygmea

13 (12) Mature conidia brown, all septa distinct, constricted at septa....14

14 (13) Conidia 6-12-septa, slightly constricted at septa....Cirrenalia tropicalis

14 (13) Conidia less than 6 septa. Apical cell contorted....Cirrenalia basiminuta

 

 

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